Russiadating space forms of relative dating
Further planned developments called for a manned Earth orbit flight by 1964 and an unmanned lunar mission at an earlier date.
—was charged to accelerate the manned program, the design of which was combined with the Zenit program to produce the Vostok spacecraft.
With the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia and Ukraine inherited the program.
Russia created the Russian Aviation and Space Agency, now known as the Roscosmos State Corporation, The theory of space exploration had a solid basis in the Russian Empire before the First World War with the writings of Konstantin Tsiolkovsky (1857-1935), who published pioneering papers in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and in 1929 introduced the concept of the multistaged rocket.
Unlike the American space program which had NASA as a single coordinating structure directed by its administrator, James Webb through most of the 1960s, the USSR's program was split between several competing design groups.
The Americans had secretly moved most leading German scientists and 100 V-2 rockets to the United States in Operation Paperclip, but the Russian program greatly benefited from captured German records and scientists, in particular drawings obtained from the V-2 production sites.
they built a replica of the V-2 called the R-1, although the weight of Soviet nuclear warheads required a more powerful booster.
While the government and the Communist Party used the program's successes as propaganda tools after they occurred, systematic plans for missions based on political reasons were rare, one exception being Valentina Tereshkova, the first woman in space, on Vostok 6 in 1963.
Missions were planned based on rocket availability or ad hoc reasons, rather than scientific purposes.